Product Reviews

An Outdoor Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers

An outdoor Ping Pong Table is one kind of table that is used in parks and outdoors to play Table Tennis. Here, we are going to discuss An Outdoor Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers. The company launched this table for design lover and table tennis fan. The company is ruling Worldwide in terms of table design and its architectural details.

The table fits the expectation of the Table Tennis lovers with the elegant design. Ping Pong Table comes in various collections. Further, the company partners with the different designers to create various collections of Table design.The Woolsey Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers

The Woolsey Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers

The Woolsey Ping Pong Table is a multifunctional and sleek table with a solid walnut colored top. The legs of the table are of solid walnut and are attached on both sides of Table. It has steel net attached to the middle of the table which can easily be removed.

If you want to convert the Ping Pong Table into the dining table then it can be. So, it will work for two purposes either you can use it as a dining table or Ping Pong Table. Further, you will please to see the elegant design of the table.

Read more: Nest Thermostat – A Cheaper Solution To Bring The Smart Home

Features of Woosley Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers

The design of the Woosley Ping Pong Table looks elegant and attractive. The finishing of this table includes hand rubbed oil and wax. Following are some of the characteristics of this table:

  • It is 108 × 60 × 30 in dimension.
  • Woosley Ping Pong Table is used as a dining table and Tennis Table.
  • The product is tested first and then sold on the website.
  • The design of the table is sleek and the top of the table is covered with walnut colour.
  • The powder coat color is available in two colors such as white and black.
  • The net is removable for dining use or conference table.You and Me Ping Pong Table

You and Me Ping Pong Table

You and Me Ping Pong Table provide a high-quality table for table tennis game with all the necessary. It includes net, balls, paddles and all are kept in an integrated drawer. Further, the table is perfect for the dining table or conference table also. You can free to use this table either inside or outside.

Expert Tips: 5 Ways to Ace Litterbox Maintenance

The design of the You and Me Ping Pong Table is absolutely perfect for the table tennis enthusiast. However, this table needs a shady location and protective cover for the black colored table. The different collections of the table come with ball, paddles, and net.

Features of You and Me Ping Pong Table

You and Me Ping Pong table come in different material like Synthetic laminate, polyester paint, stainless steel. Here, we are going to discuss some more features of this table.

  • It includes One ping pong table, net, 2 paddles, and 6 ping pong balls.
  • It can be used for both the purpose either for inside use or for outside use.
  • You and Me ping pong table dimensions come for a different age group.
  • It is available in two colors such as white and black.
  • The table comes with weather and water-resistant material.
  • It requires simple assembly during the installation.

That’s all about An Outdoor Ping Pong Table for Design Lovers. Hope, you have got the idea about it. Further, you can get more details on Ping Pong Table from our website Linux-Vr.

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5 Ways to Ace Litterbox Maintenance and Keep Your Cat Happy

Happy cats are healthier cats and how we can keep her happy is the matter of concern. Here, we will discuss the ways to Ace Litterbox Maintenance and keep the cat happy. A variety of methods are available to make your cat happy by maintaining Ace Litterbox.

The study reveals that the cat soiled their homes one and more times a week. This is one of the common behaviors found among the cats. There are various reasons why cats tend to do so.

Medical Causes: It might be due to the medical conditions like diabetes, bladder stones, and infections. This can cause Cats to urinate outside their litterbox. The problem is behavioral with the cats.

Stress: When cat experience stress then it often leads to house soiling. Their behavior changes and starts behaving in another way. They’ll soil in different patterns that indicate that she is facing the problem.

Litterbox Unhappiness: If you experience like affecting cats pissed off over the state of her litterbox. This can make a box less attractive, including change of a new litter, a new cleaner.

Read: Arlo Pro vs Arlo – Is there any difference?

5 Ways to Ace Litterbox Maintenance and Keep your Cat Happy

5 Ways To Ace Litterbox Maintenance and Keep Your Cat Healthy

We will discuss with the tips how to ace your litterbox maintenance and keep your cat happy here. Let’s have a look at the five ways.

Location Matters: The affecting cats feel uncomfortable and placing the litterbox at the right place will help. You should consider the location of a litter box, which prevents the outdoor cats to reach there. Litterbox location should not be near to windows or doors. Most of the cats prefer the litter box to other parts of the house because of the appearance. Place the litter box where your kitty is not bothered by dogs, people, or loud noises.

Counts of Cleanliness: If your cat has a litterbox issue then daily cleaning is essential to keep the cat happy. If you always keep your scoop, then there may be chances that your cat will not be in the right place of the box. Further, provide cats uncovered litter boxes. Cats often avoid the use of dirty litter boxes.

Extra LitterBox: Some cats specialists suggest to keep extra litterbox on every cat in your home. Thus, every cat would have two litter boxes. Some owners are comfortable with the less but in such case, you are risking your cat’s comfort. The size of the litterbox should be one and half times extra than the length of the longest cat in the household. Most of the owner keeps small size litterbox that makes her uncomfortable and unhappy.

Consider Your Litter: Think to offer a variety of litter boxes with different types of cat litters till you find the perfect fit for your cat. Cat feels comfortable in large size boxes. When you find the product that your cat likes then stick to it. Cat food comes in a variety of types like semi-moist, dry food, and canned. Also, choose a good brand of cat food with specific nutrition.

Our Reviews: Nest Thermostat – A Cheaper Solution To Bring The Smart Home

Don’t Put a Lid On It: The enclosed litterbox can be discomfiting for cats and this is why large boxes could be a great fit for your cat. Always consider buying one of those clear boxes with a small opening just above the litter level.

We have discussed all the five ways to ace your litterbox maintenance and keep your cat happy. Further, there are several other ways to keep your cat healthy like spending a time with her, keeping your cat healthy, engaging your cat in play, etc. However, you will get more information related to this post from our website Linux VR.

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Product Reviews

Nest Thermostat – A Cheaper Solution To Bring The Smart Home

The Nest launched its product called Thermostat in 2011, it comes with a $250 cost. It is a money saving gadgets with almost all the specifications. It works in the same way by learning to match the temperature when people need it and cool when they don’t need it. Theoretically, it reduces the heating bills by conserving the energy. It is an electronic and programmable device that maintains the heating and cooling of homes.

It is suitable for most of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems that require heating as well as the cooling system. It looks more stylish and a smart one. Nest Thermostat is available for sale in the country like Mexico, USA, Canada, UK, France, etc.Nest Thermostat Construction and Working

Construction and Working of Nest Thermostat

Nest Thermostat in the older model had a stainless steel wheel for changing the temperature. Although, it has got a plastic knob and a high definition screen. The grey color is designed to better blend in with most house environment. The modern design serves as the finest piece of geeky art on the wall.

It includes two main pieces of hardware. The display of the Nest contains the main PCB, rotating ring, houses connection terminals, a spot for wall anchors, and bubble level. The thermostat is connected to a Heat link device that contains the main voltage controlling system circuit.

Other Reads: Arlo Pro vs Arlo – Is there any difference?

The Nest allows the interaction with the thermostat through the clicking and spinning off its control wheel. Further, it brings option from heating to cooling and access to device settings, scheduling, and energy history. Users can use it without touching the screen. When the thermostat is connected to the internet, the company brings updates to fix the bugs, add additional features, and improve performance.Benefits of Nest Thermostat

Benefits of Nest Thermostat

Nest Thermostat works in most homes. It figures out what system you have and turns on the right features for you. Following are the features of Nest Thermostat:

  • It is easy and quick to install. It requires less than 30 minutes to install.
  • Nest Thermostat Pro is always available to guide you through the installation and quick demo.
  • It lights up to show you the time, temperature, and weather.
  • Nest Thermostat learns how long your home takes to heat up and cool down. So that you can warm up your house accordingly.
  • The screen is 40% larger with a clear and bright screen.
  • You can connect to the internet to update the bugs, and add additional features.
  • It helps to track the weather and saves the energy by adjusting automatically.
  • With the help of its application, you can adjust the temperature quickly by sitting in one corner of your room.
  • Nest will send you an alert if your house is getting too cold or too hot.

The company is moving ahead beyond the techie world with a cheaper version of its thermostat. Further, the company partners with different energy companies to provide the savings across the globe.

That’s all about Nest Thermostat and it is one of the cheaper solutions to bring the smart home. However, you can get more details on this post from our website Linux VR.

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Arlo Pro vs Arlo – Is there any difference?

Arlo Cameras is used to monitor the outside area of home without paying any monthly charge. But there is a difference between an original Arlo vs Arlo Pro. The camera works differently and it is important to understand the difference when you go about purchasing it.

Arlo Pro comes with camera kits and a base station. Both cameras are wireless and operated with batteries. They are water resistant and weatherproof for outdoor use.Arlo Pro Review

Arlo Pro Review

Arlo Pro is Net gear’s weatherproof, wireless camera, and high-end device. It requires a minimum expenditure of three hundred euro for a single camera and a base station. It consists of a long-lasting rechargeable battery into each camera. You don’t have to change the battery. Simply you need to recharge your Arlo Pro batteries after every four months.

It consists of two-way audio along with microphone and speaker. The microphone is essential for the camera which is outside the home because it listens to the voice of the strangers and guests. It consists of the highly advanced motion detector with a passive infrared sensor. The sensor enables Arlo Pro to go into sleep mode till it is awakened by motion that saves your battery.

Arlo Pro offers local storage through the USB drive. You can back up the files if the internet connection is not available. It works at the colder temperature. Arlo Pro cameras give a wider field of view that makes the surveillance more accurate.Arlo Wire Free Camera

Arlo Wire Free

Many customers have complained about the issue of the Arlo Wire Free. One of the biggest problems is a lag of camera senses motion of the object and your phone gets notified. The other issue is the non-rechargeable battery that needs to replace it every four months. The rechargeable battery is manufactured by T energy that has decent reviews on Amazon but now serves as the great option.

However, Arlo Wire-Free is a cheaper product compared to the Arlo Pro. The good news is that the Arlo wire-free cameras are fully compatible with Arlo Pro. If you have Arlo Wire free cameras then you don’t need to throw it. They work well when they are connected to a new base station and Arlo Pro cameras.

Features of Both Arlo Cameras

Arlo Wire Free and Arlo Pro have some of the similar features which we are going to mention here.

  • They are wireless high-end devices and operates on batteries.
  • Weatherproof and water resistance for outdoor use.
  • They provide high definition video recording.
  • You can use the application to set motion alerts and notifications.
  • They provide you seven days of free cloud storage.
  • The Arlo Smart upgraded plan is available on either camera that enables to see the difference between animals, people, and others.
  • It is compatible with the original and second version base station in addition to all Arlo cameras.
  • It works with other smart home systems, including Alexa, Wink, and more.

That’s all about Arlo wire free and Arlo pro in this post. Hope, you have understood the differences in both the cameras. Further, you can get more details related to Arlo security camera from our website Linux VR.

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Linux VR CompactFlash Root HOWTO


Even a small Linux distribution uses up some room, as well as keeping everything in a ramdisk eventually ends up being unwise. The coolest option is to replace the ROMs in the device, yet because that’s not an option (at the very least yet) for most tools, the following ideal thing is to install origin from a CompactFlash card.


A CompactFlash card for which you have no love of the contents, as this procedure will completely erase everything from your Compact Flash card. To use my ready CF roots you require a 16MB or bigger CF card.
Appropriate “boot” and “origin” archive from my ftp website.

Placing Root from CompactFlash

Place the CompactFlash card into the Linux box. Keep in mind the hd designation. The rest of these instructions will utilize/ dev/hde.

Use Linux fdisk:

fdisk/ dev/hde.

to dividing the CF card in 2 components:.

Partition   Kind         Size                   Type.

1                  Primary   2MB                 FAT12.
2                 Primary   Remainder      Linux.

You do not need to establish the boot flag for either dividing.

Format both CompactFlash dividings:.

mkdosfs/ dev/hde1.
mke2fs/ dev/hde2.

Remove the boot and also root archives using the actual names instead of “boot” and also “origin”:.

tar -xzf boot.tar.gz.
tar -xzf root.tar.gz.

Mount as well as replicate the materials of both archives to the partitions, once more making use of the actual names of the removed directory sites instead of “boot” and also “root”:.

place/ dev/hde1/ mnt -t vfat.
cp boot/ */ mnt.
umount/ mnt.

mount/ dev/hde2/ mnt.
cp -a root/ */ mnt.
umount/ mnt.

Note: The -an alternative in the second copy is crucial.

Get rid of the CompactFlash card from the Linux box and also insert it right into your tool.
Introduce cyace.exe on the storage space card. Linux must start.
When done utilizing Linux, make certain to umount/ after that reset the gadget.

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Linux VR Tools HOWTO


Thanks to Jay Carlson for his service the tool collection, to Mike Klar for product packaging the tools and also collections, and to both for their contributions to this paperwork.


This HOWTO describes the Linux Virtual Reality software advancement tools as well as discusses how you can install and utilize them.

Since Linux Virtual Reality targets devices that do not have floating-point coprocessors, it has unique needs with regards to compilers and also libraries. It would be nice if we can use the supply MIPS cross-compilers and libraries for Linux VR, but alas, that is not feasible. Linux Virtual Reality uses GOFAST soft-floating-point routines. The stock MIPS egcs-mipsel-linux i386 cross compiler doesn’t (as well as there may be various other troubles related to soft-float in the supply MIPS go across compiler). Linux Virtual Reality needs soft-float collections (C, C++, and so on). The typical MIPS collections are built for equipment drifting point.

We could (and also do) use the supply MIPS cross-binutils (as, ld, and so on).


Linux Virtual Reality runs on MIPS processors. The Linux Virtual Reality advancement devices require to produce MIPS executables. It is possible to make use of an x86 Linux box to develop MIPS executables for the Linux VR tool.

If you just intend to develop the kernel, then you just need to do the following two areas, “Installing the Cross-Binutils” as well as “Installing the C Cross-Compiler”.

If you plan on building userland applications, after that do all the adhering to sections.

Installing the Cross-Binutils

Building an executable generally includes using a binutil or 2, like as (assember) or ld (linker). So install the cross-binutils first.

To install the supply MIPS cross-binutils

  1. Download the binutils-mipsel-linux rpm from right here.
  2. Install it utilizing “rpm -i”. This needs host glibc 2.0 or greater installed.

Installing the C Cross-Compiler

Cross-compiling C programs, consisting of the Linux VR bit, needs a C cross compiler. For Linux Virtual Reality we utilize our very own construct of egcs-mipsel-linux that supports GOFAST soft-floating-point regimens. Generally, the bit could be sucessfully assembled with the supply MIPS C cross-compiler, yet considering that building userland applications and also some components of the bit requires our own egcs construct, it’s best to simply make use of that for assembling both kernel and userland applications.

To install the C cross-compiler

  1. Download the egcs-mipsel-linux rpm from below.
  2. Install it making use of “rpm -i”. This requires host glibc 2.0 or higher as well as the cross-binutils (see above) installed.

Installing the Cross-Development C Libraries

For Linux VR we utilize our very own soft-float develop of glibc. It is specifically packaged for cross-development, which amounts to a simple reformation of the native mipsel-linux-soft-float glibc libraries installed in an unique place for cross-development.

To install the cross-development C libraries

  1. Download and install the glibc-mipsel-linux-softfloat tar from right here.
    Adjustment to “/ usr”.
  2. Untar the data.
  3. Adjust the permissions on/ usr/mipsel-linux suitably. For instance, a+ rx for directories, a+ r for files.

Linux Kernel Source Symlinks

Numerous applications need accessibility to header data in the Linux Kernel sources. To promote this, set up the Linux kernel source symlinks

To establish the Linux kernel source symlinks.

  1. See to it that the bit sources are installed.
  2. Adjustment to the/ usr/mipsel-linux/include directory.
  3. Develop symlinks to the Linux bit resources as complies with:
    1. ln -s <kernel source root>/ include/linux linux
    2. ln -s <kernel source root>/ include/asm-mips asm

Utilizing the C Cross-Compiler and also Cross-Binutils

Device Names

Prepend “mipsel-linux-” to the tool name.

  • mipsel-linux-gcc
  • mipsel-linux-objdump


Use -msoft-float along with other choices that you pass to mipsel-linux-gcc. This is essential both when compiling and when connecting.

mipsel-linux-gcc -msoft-float -c foo.c.
at compile-time sees to it gcc itself does not generate hardware drifting factor operations, and also.
mipsel-linux-gcc -msoft-float foo.o bar.o -lbaz -o a.out.
is required at link-time to obtain the best version of libgcc.a.
In general, if a makefile would like to know exactly what CC is, the answer ought to be.

CC = mipsel-linux-gcc -msoft-float.
and also if it wants a setting for LD besides LD = $( CC),.
LD = mipsel-linux-gcc -msoft-float.

Various other Languages.

One cannot think whatever one listens to – there actually are various other languages than C.:–RRB- We have a few various other cross-compilers readily available.

To install another cross-compiler.

Download and install the rpm.
Install it making use of “rpm -i”.

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Linux VR Booting HOWTO


Before you can boot Linux on your tool, you need to have two things:

  • a boot loader
  • a kernel

The boot loader part is very easy – simply download it (see listed below).

The bit part is a bit harder, as you must use one that is particularly developed for your system. The easy means to obtain one is to download and install one from my ftp site (see listed below). You could develop your personal bit (BYOK), yet this paper doesn’t get into that (if you intend to BYOK please see my Kernel Building HOWTO).

Booting Linux from Windows CE isn’t really that hard, so please offer it a try, as well as if you do, please allow me recognize how it goes (

Getting a Windows CE Boot Loader

There go to the very least a few Windows CE boot loaders them available. I advise the latest one, passionately named CyaCE.:–RRB- Steven Hill and also I made it based upon pbsdboot (see below). It has a great user interface, as well as all the configuration is done in a plain-text config documents, cyacecfg.txt. It will certainly additionally open up the serial port for you, so you do not have to make use of the serial console tip discussed below. You could obtain it from my ftp site at

There is likewise pbsdboot, the boot loader from the PocketBSD job. I utilized to make use of a version of pbsdboot until I made CyaCE. It works fine, however it doesn’t do auto-booting from a config data like CyaCE does. Last I checked you could get it from here. A caution on this: older versions did hardware-dependent screen clearing up, which was really bad on the Casio E-100/ 105 since while it thought it was contacting the E-105 framebuffer, it was truly completely filpping out the E-105 graphics controller registers rather. IMO the boot loader should either leave the display alone, or clear it in some hardware indepenent (Win32) means. At this time, CyaCE does neither, yet hardware-independent screen clearing is on the order of business, listed below dealing with initrd and pressed kernels. Anyway, it looks #if 0′ ed out in latest pbsdboot resources, so it ought to be OKAY now, but I haven’t checked it.

Obtaining a Ready-Made Kernel from my FTP Site

There are several bits up there currently:

  • The -clio ones are configured for the Vadem Clio, with assistance for the display screen and key-board.
  • The -e-105 ones are configured for the Casio E-100/ 105.
  • The -serial ones are set up for the console on the serial port, and also no screen assistance.
  • The -sas indicates that they use the stand-alone covering, which is smaller and also might be needed for equipments with much less compared to 8MB RAM.

I additionally compressed a few of them to a number of various compression layouts, specifically bzip2 (use bunzip2) as well as zip (use your favorite unzipper).

To get a prefabricated kernel

  • Obtain the ideal vmlinux apply for your system from my ftp site at
  • If essential to end up with a vmlinux documents, uncompress it (. This is the bit picture documents.)

Starting the Kernel

Here’s how to boot it when you have your boot loader and kernel (vmlinux bit photo data).

Obligitory Warning Notice

Do not go any type of more on this page if you care about any of the information in your device. No, starting Linux on your gadget will not pysically damage it, nullify the service warranty, or include years to your life (at the very least not that I understand of), yet it can (as well as constantly does when I do it) eliminate all of the information in the device’s memory. Backup any kind of information that you care regarding. OK? Push the reset button on your gadget to get back to Windows CE (most likely with your data all gone) when you are finished playing with Linux. If that doesn’t work, try doing a tough reset inning accordance with the device maker’s directions (if booting Linux didn’t eliminate the memory, then this is virtually guaranteed to do so). Oh, as well as please do not assume that I’m liable if you lose something – you can’t say that I didn’t caution you. Another point – IF YOU GO MUCH FURTHER ON THIS PAGE YOU ARE PRATICALLY GUARANTEED TO ERASE ALL OF THE DATA IN YOUR DEVICE’S MEMORY! There. Now have fun.

To boot Linux from Windows CE.

  • Copy the boot loader as well as the bit photo to the Windows CE gadget. I prefer to replicate them to the origin of a CF card utilizing my laptop, then pop the CF card into the CE gadget.
  • If the bit is configured to make use of a serial console, then link your tool to a serial port on another computer, pull up your serial terminal software program (I utilize minicom on Linux), and also established it to 9600 baud.
  • Pause, think carefully, “Do I mind if I wipe out this tool’s memory?”, due to the fact that the next step is the one that practically for certain will certainly erase all of your gadget’s memory.
  • Introduce the boot loader (see listed below for pointers on that particular). It will most likely instantly boot after a few secs if you are using CyaCE. If you are making use of an additional boot loader, you could need to fill in some spaces as well as strike “Boot”.

Changing the Boot Loader Settings.

You might need to readjust the boot loader setups. The best ways to do this depends on the bootloader you are using.

Adjusting CyaCE for Ramdisk Root.

For ramdisk root, you should modify the cyacecfg.txt data to tell the bit to get the root from the/ dev/ram0 device. Adjust your cyacecfg.txt data to look something similar to this:.

  • image= vmlinux.
  • label= linux.
  • append= origin=/ dev/ram0.

Note: earlier kernels really did not need this, but newer kernels do. Those very early kernels brokenly always installed/ dev/ram as genuine origin when initrd was set up, whereas the more recent bits do not.

Releasing the Boot Loader.

This could be a little hard, particularly if you have a Palm-size PC. Below are some choices:.

  • You could merely navigate to the boot loader and also double-click on it if you have an H/PC.
  • You may be able to obtain a “run” dialog ahead up despite the fact that it doesn’t appear on the Start menu (see below).
  • Some Casios have a method to obtain them to auto-boot (see listed below).
  • You could require to add the boot loader to the Start food selection if none of those choices job.

Start Menu Run Dialog.

Why exists no Run choice on the Windows CE P/PC Start food selection? I can’t answer that concern, yet despite the fact that it doesn’t show up on the Start food selection, you still may be able to obtain a Run dialog up on your tool. Attempt this exactly as defined:.

  • Bring up the on-screen keyboard.
  • Click Start twice (the Start menu appears after that disappears). Don’t double-click it – simply click it as soon as, let it open, then click it once again and also let it close.
  • Type run23 on the on-screen keyboard.
  • Once it comes up, you might, as an example, key in “\ storage card \ cyace” (consisting of the quotes) to launch CyaCE from your storage space card.

( By the way, for some factor the Clio names the storage card “\ Storage Card” – with an area at the end. I wonder if the brand-new Clio will be “backward compatible”?

If you can not obtain it to work, try resetting your device after that trying again.

Auto-Booting on Casios.

Some Casio PsPC equipments (however apparently not the E-10) will automatically run \ CE \ R4100 \ AutoRun.exe on a CF card when the CF card is put.

To benefit from this attribute, relabel your boot loader to AutoRun.exe and also placed it in \ CE \ R4100 \ on your CF card.

Including the Boot Loader to the Start Menu.

Here is a means to include the boot loader and also bit documents to the start menu (based upon contribution by Greg Haerr). It requires the use of Windows CE Servces.

  • Open Up Mobile Devices on the PC.
  • In Mobile Devices, open up the folder for your tool.
  • Open the “Windows” folder.
  • Open Up “Start Menu”.
  • Drag cyace.exe, cyacecfg.txt, as well as vmlinux in.
  • Click on the Start food selection on the device.
  • Click on cyace.

Adjusting Memory Settings.

If you obtain a “cannot allocate load” error from the boot loader, you could need to change your CE memory setups in order to offer the boot loader more area to pack the kernel. Go to Start, Settings, System, Memory, and also set the slider for minimal storage memory as well as maximum program memory.

Tip on Using the Serial Console.

This tip is only useful to people utilizing old variations of CyaCE or pbsdboot. The more recent variations of both of those programs have a function that makes this tip obsolete.

If you are booting a bit set up for serial console, as well as you are not getting any kind of outcome on the serial port when you boot the bit, try booting it while COMPUTER Link is running. Some systems power down the serial transceiver wiring via a GPIO when it’s not in use to conserve power. Having PC Link running while you are starting the bit leaves the serial transceiver wiring turned on for Linux to make use of.

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Linux VR Ramdisk HOWTO


I composed this HOWTO in order to help people construct as well as change ramdisks for connecting into a Vr41xx bit.

This is presently just a draft. It might still be broken in locations.

The means we do the ramdisk currently is not. Actually, we need either bootloader assistance for an origin ramdisk, or we should append the ramdisk onto the end of the bit with a header, after that cost-free that ram later on.


Linux VR can mount a ramdisk connected into the kernel as root. This is the most basic method of starting Linux VR from Windows CE, because the origin is linked right into the bit.


” Ramdisk image” refers to a file which contains a photo of an ext2 filesystem that could be installed with -o loop or as a ramdisk. “Ramdisk item” describes a fairy object that envelops a (normally pressed) ramdisk image, made use of for linking a ramdisk into the Linux kernel. See the note at the end about how this terminogy has changed with time.

Modifiying an Existing Ramdisk Image

It’s probably much easier to get the ramdisk image off my ftp site and also customize it to your preference than to build one on your own from square one. Keep in mind that these directions presume that you have loopback tool support available.

To customize an existing ramdisk image

  • Obtain the ramdisk photo (ramdisk.bz2) off my ftp website at The ramdisk there is based practically completely on a ramdisk put together by Jay Carlson. It’s the very best that I’ve seen thus far.
  • Don’t attempt the following actions with a ramdisk.o data – that’s a ramdisk (possibly a pressed one) packaged inside an elf object for connecting it into the kernel, not a ramdisk picture. You need to install the ramdisk picture (I reveal you how to make a brand-new ramdisk.o from your ramdisk picture in the following area).
  • Kind: mkdir/ mnt/ramdisk to develop a ramdisk install factor (if you don’t have one already).
  • Type: place/ tmp/ramdisk/ mnt/ramdisk -o loophole to place the ramdisk photo on/ mnt/ramdisk.
  • Modify/ mnt/ramdisk as you please.
  • Type: umount/ mnt/ramdisk to unmount the ramdisk image.
  • Type: touch/ tmp/ramdisk to show that the ramdisk picture has been changed. This is needed by mipsel-ramdisk “make install” (listed below), as well as for some strange reason/ tmp/ramdisk doesn’t automatically show that modifications were made to it while it was mounted.
  • Next off, do “Making a New Ramdisk Object” below.

If you do not have loopback tool assistance available

Try something such as this (untried):.

  • Kind: dd if=/ tmp/ramdisk of=/ dev/ram0 and also watch out that you typically aren’t already utilizing/ dev/ram0.
  • Kind: mkdir/ mnt/ramdisk to produce a ramdisk mount point (if you don’t have one already).
  • Type: mount -t ext2/ dev/ram0/ mnt/ramdisk.
  • Customize/ mnt/ramdisk as you please.
  • Kind: umount/ mnt/ramdisk.
  • Type: dd if=/ dev/ram0 of= ramdisk.img.ext2 count= 1440.
  • Next, do “Making a New Ramdisk Object” listed below.

Making a Ramdisk Image from Scratch.

Jay kept in mind: You can have any dimension ramdisk … If you intend to transform the size of the ramdisk, you have to mke2fs a new one (see linux/Documentation/ramdisk. txt area 4) and copy the contents of the old one over.

Next off, do “Making a New Ramdisk Object” below.

Making a New Ramdisk Object.

To earn the ramdisk a part of the bit photo, I press the ramdisk photo documents, plan the compressed documents in an elf object, then connect it with the rest of the kernel. In order to help with this, install the mipsel-ramdisk maker first if you haven’t currently.

Julian boot prefers a covering script to do this, as he states” [it is] all self included and I could be in any type of directory to run it. ymmv”. I included that method likewise.

To install the mipsel-ramdisk maker.

  • Obtain mipsel-ramdisk. tar.bz2 from my ftp site at
  • Uncompress it to/ usr/src. Now you have/ usr/src/mipsel-ramdisk.

Making a brand-new ramdisk object with the mipsel-ramdisk manufacturer.

  • Modification to the/ usr/src/mipsel-ramdisk directory site.
  • Kind: make install to earn ramdisk.o and also copy it into/ usr/src/linux/ arch/mips/boot.

Making a new ramdisk item with a manuscript.

Right here is a changed version of Julian’s script. I haven’t evaluated it however I presume it functions penalty.

use: ramdisk-image ramdisk-object.

Linking Your New Ramdisk Into Your Kernel.

The last step is to connect your brand-new ramdisk (actually, your new ramdisk.o data) right into your kernel (vmlinux data).

To link your brand-new ramdisk right into your bit.

  • Modification to the/ usr/src/linux directory site.
  • Type: make to make a brand-new vmlinux with your new ramdisk linked in.

Starting a Ramdisk-Root Kernel.

To book a ramdisk-root kernel, you should specify/ dev/ram0 as the origin gadget. See the Linux Virtual Reality Booting HOWTO for more details about this.


Ramdisk Terminology Change.

The ramdisk terminolgy altered with time. The term “ramdisk image” used to be “raw ramdisk”, and the term “ramdisk object” made use of to be “ramdisk photo”. The ramdisk item data “ramdisk.o” used to be “ramdisk.img”. The earlier terms as well as filename were based on terms that was being made use of at the time. The trouble was that “ramdisk.img” was not a ramdisk photo – it was an elf things, plus it was stealing the ideal name for the actual ramdisk picture, which I after that needed to call “raw ramdisk” rather. Anyhow it was a source of confusion. So I changed the terms as well as the filename to be better and less confusing. I additionally changed the mipsel-ramdisk maker as well as linux/arch/mips/ vr41xx/Makefile to accomodate the name adjustment. There, that actually simplifies points, eh.

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Linux VR Kernel Building HOWTO


A couple of individuals have asked me how they can aid with the growth, and also my response was repeatedly something like, “First, obtain your compile enviornment established and try constructing the bit”. That spurred me on to make my own Vr41xx-aware Linux-MIPS Kernel Building HOWTO. It’s a quick-start guide to beginning Vr41xx growth, strolling you through the steps from beginning to end. If you’ve been kicking around the suggestion of building the bit on your own, yet just weren’t certain where to begin, please take a look.


Developing the kernel includes several actions, espcially at first. Right here is an outline of points one usually needs to do to develop a linux-mips bit for the first time:

  • Establish your cross-compile environment
  • Get the latest Linux VR bit resources
  • Supply a ramdisk item
  • Configure the bit
  • End up constructing the kernel

Each step is described carefully below.

Note: These guidelines think that you will certainly construct your bit on a Red Hat 6.0 i386 installation.

Setting Up a Cross-Compile Environment

To establish your cross-compile atmosphere, you should obtain the mipsel-linux compiler and binutils as well as install them on your computer. I very suggest that you get the binaries as opposed to building them on your own since a) it’s much easier, b) developing the kernel challenging enough, as well as c) I understand that these work and also have heard that developing points like glibc yourself is asking for it.

To setup up your cross-compile setting

  • See the Linux VR Tools HOWTO.

Obtaining the most recent Linux VR Kernel Sources

The current Linux Virtual Reality bit resources are kept in the Linux Virtual Reality CVS database. There are also launch photos offered.

The primary Linux-MIPS sources are maintained in a CVS archive at SGI. Confidential individuals can access it by cvs login, password cvs, carbon monoxide linux. Users with account the path name is/ home/pub/cvs/. We have actually been maintaining the Linux VR sources compatible them. We have likewise started offering back-syncs to SGI.

Note: this HOWTO assumes that you place your Linux VR kernel sources in ~/ src/linux-vr.

To obtain the current Linux Virtual Reality resources from our CVS

  • See the Linux Virtual Reality CVS HOWTO.
  • Supplying a Ramdisk Object

The bit can mount a ramdisk as origin. I have some ramdisk object files on my ftp site that you could connect into your kernel. You could likewise construct your very own ramdisk things, which you should do if you want to add to or modify the ramdisk for your very own functions.

To supply a prepared ramdisk things

  • Get a ready ramdisk item file ramdisk.o.bz2 from my ftp website.
  • Uncompress it.
  • Place the ramdisk.o file in/ usr/src/linux/ arch/mips/boot/.

To construct and also provide your personal ramdisk object

  • See the Ramdisk HOWTO to learn more concerning modifying/building ramdisks and also making ramdisk things, as well as develop your own ramdisk object.
  • Put your ramdisk.o file in/ usr/src/linux/ arch/mips/boot/.

Configuring the Kernel

Before you could build the bit, you initially have to configure it. One means is to get a prepared config from my ftp site and use that to set up the bit. Another way is to configure it all on your own.

To configure the kernel with a prepared.config

  • Obtain the prepared config from my ftp website at that is appropriate for your platform.
    If required), uncompress it (.
  • Rename it to.config.
  • Place it in ~/ src/linux-vr.
  • Adjustment to ~/ src/linux-vr.
  • Type: make oldconfig
  • to run though the prepared.config.
  • Type: make dep
  • as well as take a look at the result to see if there are any errors.

To set up the kernel all yourself

  • Adjustment to/ usr/src/linux (that we sybolically linked to/ usr/src/linux-mips over).
  • Kind: make menuconfig
  • Under Code maturation … activate Prompt for advancement …
  • Under Machine Selection, Class, choose Handheld/PDA.
  • Under Kernel hacking, choose Are you making use of a cross compiler.
  • Finish establishing the rest of the configuration alternatives.
  • When you are completed configuring, leave as well as save your modifications.
  • Type: make dep
    as well as take a look at the output to see if there are any kind of errors.

Completing Building the Kernel

Since you have configured the kernel and also made the dependences, you can make the bit, producing the final kernel photo.

Making the bit normally produces a vmlinux documents, which is the bit executable. The vmlinux documents usually has a great deal of debugging and also unnecessary details that could securely be removed. You could develop a “removed” version of vmlinux, called vmlinux-stripped, that is much smaller sized as well as more appropriate for starting on little devices than vmlinux itself.

Making the kernel

  • Kind: make removed
  • Consider the outcome and also see if there are any type of errors. You should currently have an arch/mips/boot/ vmlinux-stripped that you can use to boot Linux on your gadget if everthing went right.
  • Evaluating Out Your New Kernel

Congratulations! You’ve completed developing the bit if you’ve gotten this far successfully. Now, boot it up as well as provide it a try. Look below for guidelines on booting bits.

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This HOWTO provides info on the CVS repsitory used for the Linux VR project.


You can check out the latest source code through anonymous (pserver) CVS:

cvs login
cvs co linux

Just press Enter for the password (leave it blank). Updates from within the module’s directory do not need the -d parameter. Please contact a project admin to request write access to the repository.

This creates a “linux” directory right under wherever you were when you did the checkout command. I recommend that you rename it to “linux-vr”:

mv linux linux-vr

You can update your local sources from the Linux VR CVS repository:

cd linux-vr
cvs update

You can also browse the repository.


  1. If someone has a patch, let them post it to the list. We will all review it, and if it receives approval, an appropriate person will commit it.
  2. Once someone proves to be trustworthy and competent, by means of posting of quality patch(es), and can demonstrate a reasonable need for CVS write access, that person may apply for CVS write access. Those currently with write access will as a group consider the application, if they reach a consensus to approve the application, they will grant the applicant permission for write access.
  3. If someone who has write access proves to be untrustworthy or incompetent, then the others with write access will as a group consider revoking their permission for write access, and will make a decision of whether or not to revoke based on consensus.
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